JOINT BULLETINS NOS. 4 AND 5
Vermont Botanical and
Published Annually by the Clubs
MAY 9 1921
JOINT BULLETINS NOS. 4 AND 5
Vermont Botanical and
Published Annually by the Clubs
Free Press Printing Company
PRESIDENT, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury.
VICE-PRESIDENT, Harry F. Perkins, Burlington.
SECRETARY, George P. Burns, Burlington.
TREASURER, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington.
EDITOR OF BULLETIN, George L. Kirk, Rutland.
VERMONT BOTANICAL AND BIRD CLUBS
Joint Bulletins Nos. 4 and 5 April, 1919
One copy of this bulletin is sent to each member. Extca copies
of this as well as copies of previous bulletins may be obtained of Mrs.
Flynn at Burlington for 10 cents each.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Treasurer's Report 4
Meetings of the Clubs, Nellie F. Flynn 5
Plants New to Vermont Collected at Woodstock, Nellie F. Flynn 7
Additions to West River Valley Flora, Leston A. Wheeler 8
Along Highway and Cross-Country in Oklahoma, Alice E. Bacon 8
Night Observation of Birds, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 12
Golden-Winged Warblers Summering in Rutland, Duane E. Kent 15
Some New Stations for Rare Plants in Northeastern Vermont, Inez
Addie Howe 15
Four Summer Meetings of the Hartland Nature Club, Mrs. A. B.
A Word Concerning Xanthiums, Nellie F. Flynn 20
The Woodstock Bird Club 21
Records for St. Johnsbury, 1917, Inez Addie Howe 21
Notes for 1918 25
Bird Migration at Stamford, Mary A. Sanford 25
The Rutland List 26
Utilization of Our Native Fruits, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 26
Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, Harold Goddard Rugg 32
Elroy Kent, George L. Kirk 32
4 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
Like many other organizations the Vermont Botanical Club and
the Vermont Bird Club were inactive during a part of 1917 and all of
1918 on account of the war in Europe. The epidemic which visited
the state made it seem best not to attempt to call together for meet-
ings even the few people who were not too busy with war or relief
work to have attended so no material was at hand for use in a bulletin
It has been thought best to combine Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 in this
issue, publishing the various papers at what would have been the normal
time for the 1918 Bulletin.
The clubs invite contributions of scientific or popular articles re-
lating to the different phases of the natural history of Vermont from
all persons who have the interest of the state at heart. So far only
the plants, the birds and the mammals of the state have bene listed.
It is to be hoped that some person will later catalogue the mollusks,
reptiles, butterflies, moths and other forms of life.
VERMONT BIRD CLUB
Cash on hand Jan. 26, 1917 $ 21.19
Annual dues 92.52
Total $ 113.81
One-half bill for printing Joint Bulletin No. 3 $ 30.48
One-half for typewriting for bulletin 1.50
Two years' dues to National Association of Audobon Societies. . 10.00
Printing programs, cards, receipts, etc 9.52
One-half yearly dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 1.50
Total $ 73.89
Cash on hand July 6, 1918 39.92
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 5
VERMONT BOTANICAL CLUB
Cash on hand Jan. 26, 1917 $ 105.9G
Annual dues 125.50
From librarian 5.64
Club pins 2.60
Total $ 241.50
Lecturer and expenses $ 32.00
One-half bill for printing Joint Bulletin No. 3 30.49
One-half bill for typewriting for bulletin 1.50
Printing programs, cards, receipts, etc 9.28
Dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 4.50
Subscription to Rhodora 1.50
Total $ 113.24
Cash on hand July 6, 1918 128.2C
Life membership fund $ 140.00
Accrued interest Jan., 1917 11.52
Total $ 151.52
Nellie F. Flynn.
MEETINGS OF THE CLUBS
THE SUMMER MEETING OF 1917
Nellie F. Flynn
This meeting of the club was held at Mount Mansfield July 7 to 9.
There were about 30 members present, most of whom assembled the
evening of the 9th at Green Mountain Inn, Stowe. On Tuesday we
started by automobile and wagon for the Summit House on Mount
Mansfield, which was reached shortly after noon.
6 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
After a good dinner a trip was taken to the highest point of the
mountain, the Chin. The rare high mountain plants, the diapensia,
Diapensia Lapponica, the mountain blueberries and cranberry, Yac-
'iniiim uliginosum, V. caespitosum,, V. pennsylvanicum var. angusti-
-folium and V. Vitis-Iclea. were all seen besides several carices and
other plants of high altitudes. The orchis, Listera convallarioides was
found in the swamp near the hotel.
The evening was occupied with a sunset party on the side of the
Nose and a business meeting and social hour.
Wednesday morning all hands started for Smugglers' Notch, most
of us on foot by the Long Trail; the rest, not up to the walk, were
conveyed by team.
The more strenuous members climbed to the foot of the cliffs on
either side of the Notch and were rewarded by the three mountain
saxifrages, Saxifraga Aizoon, S. Aizoides. and S. oppositifolia, the rare
ferns, Woodsia glabella, and W. alpina, and Asplenium viride, the hem-
lock parsley, Conioselinum chinense, the fleabane, Erigeron hyssopi-
folius, and the grass, Fastuca ovina var. brevifolia.
After lunching and botanizing around the big spring, where Listera
convallarioides was again collected, we started for Stowe, stopping
again on our way to visit Bingham Falls and shortly had turned our
faces homeward after another of our highly interesting and entertain-
The Summer Meeting of 1918
The members of the Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs to the num-
ber of 3 5 gathered at Child's Tavern at Wilmington, the evening of
July 9. Next day several more were added to our number so that in
all 25 members were present. The 10th was spent in a trip to West
Dover, botanizing along the Deerfield valley. Rain drove us home early
in the afternoon. Interesting sedges, blackberries and the pearlwort,
Sagina procumbens, were found, among other things.
The forenoon of the 11th a trip was made to Lake Sadawga in
Whitingham to see the floating islands. No boat was available to get
to them so we had to be content with one anchored to the shore but
otherwise with all of the characteristics of the floating ones. Here we
found the usual shrubs, sedges and orchids of sphagnum swamps and,
what was best of all, the arrow arm, Peltandra virginica. Rain came
again as we drove back to dinner. In the afternoon we were out again
to Ray pond only to have the rain beat us.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 7
The 12th was a beautiful day and we climbed Haystack mountain
for the beautiful view and the good botanizing along the way. Many
interesting things were seen and collected but nothing particularly new
was found. The blackberry specialists may have something to report
A good time was had in spite of the rain and the hotel accommoda-
tions were excellent.
PLANTS NEW TO VERMONT COLLECTED AT
Nellie F. Flynn
Miss Elizabeth Billings is making an herbarium of the plants of
Woodstock and the past summer (1918) Miss E. M. Kittridge of the
New York Botanical garden staff did the collecting and mounting for
her. Miss Kittridge brought me in June specimens of plants new to
Vermont that had been found by her and former collectors for Miss
Billings. These have been deposited in the University of Vermont her-
The plants are the chickweed, Stella?*ia strictifolia (collected by
Mrs. Porter) with the comment written on the sheet that it is what
has been going under the name 8. longipes but that true longipes has
obtuse sepals. It might be mistaken for S. graminea or S. longifolia.
The heather was collected by Miss Kittridge but was first dis-
covered on Mount Tom by a maid in the Billings household. A new
yarrow, Achillea ligustica, was found growing in a patch of common
yarrow. It attracted Miss Kittridge's attention because of the darker
green color of the leaves. The pigweeds, Chenopodium leptophyllum,
collected by Miss Kittridge by the roadside, and C. lanceolatum,, found
by Mrs. Porter, were in the bunch as were Habenaria liyperborea var.
huronensis (not in Gray's Manual but determined by New York Botan-
ical garden), Thalictrum purpurascens, collected by Mrs. Porter.
Miss Kittridge also presented two colored photographs to the club
herbarium, one of Pogonia affinis alone and one of that plant and
P. verticilata together. These are from plants collected on Long Island
but are interesting as the plants are very rare in Vermont, only one
plant of affinis having been collected (by Mrs. Holt at Burlington).
P. verticilata is known from only three stations and there are years
together when no plants are found at these stations.
8 . Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
ADDITIONS TO WEST RIVER VALLEY FLORA
Leston A. Wheel t r
The following plants new or rare in West River valley were
collected in 1917: Oxalis filipes. Brookline and Townshend; Hieraciunt
floribundum. Brookline; Antennaria canadensis. Asplenium angusti-
folium., Arabis hirsuta. Jamaica; Aspidimn spinulosum, Brattleboro:<
Aconitum Xapellus, Newfane and Stratton, the latter on Deerfield river
section; Potentilla pumila, Newfane, Saxtons River; Selaginella apus.
Lycopodium clavatum var. monostachyon, Sagina procumbens. Phlox
paniculata, Newfane; Polystichum Braunii. (W. H. Blanchard's station),
Medicago satiua. Lychnis clialcedonica, Galium verum. Townshend.
The following notes may prove interesting: Ophioglossum vulga-
turn, was collected from 16 colonies during the past season, all new to
me; one colony, beside Grout pond in Stratton, altitude 2,225 feet,
produced the largest and finest fronds that I ever saw.
Two plants of Botrychium obliquum, with double fertile fronds
were found. One frond of the type and one of the variety were col-
lected from the same root of Polystichum acrostichoides. One frond of
Osmunda regalis. measuring 24 by 54 inches, w r as collected and one of
Onoclea scnsibilis with the fertile frond 26 inches and the sterile 49
inches in height were found. A beautifully dense feathery form of
Lycopodium clavatum was found in Newfane. The red flowered form
of Lillium canadense was collected in Townshend growing with the
type and with an intermediate form.
ALONG HIGHWAY AND CROSS-COUNTRY IN
Alice E. Bacon
It is a far cry from Bradford, Vt., to Lawton, Okla. Lawton is in
the extreme southwestern part of the state, three miles from Fort Sill
and Camp Doniphan, which are on a government reservation of some
70,000 acres, which only a year ago was a paradise for flower lovers.
Where now barracks and tenches, aviation fields and observation towers,
rifle ranges and cannon, soldiers in the United States artillery and
recruits in the process of training reign supreme, only a short time
ago was largely given over to the prairie dog and jack rabbit and Molly
cottontail and the coyote, and was covered with a carpet of flowers
that rivaled California's boasted fields.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 9
It is not my intention to even enumerate all the flowers seen
and collected during a stay of eight months, but only to tell of those
that for their abundance, beauty or novelty impressed themselves on
my mind. Many species familiar to us in Vermont are there in pro-
fusion; others cultivated in gardens here are there seen in their native
habitat growing in a luxuriance undreamed of north.
The all-day ride across the state from the northeastern to the
southwestern corner was, even in October, a thing to be remembered
for beauty and interest. The soil of the state is in the main a red clay,
varying in tint from light rose to vivid vermilion. This alone would
dazzle the eye, but far and near were patches of golden sunflowers,
rudbeckias, coreopsis, purple ironweed, blazing star, goldenrod, asters,
boltonias and hosts of others, impossible to identify from a moving
train. One, growing quite close to the ground in vivid purple mats,
was later identified as a very beautiful star thistle, which dries per-
fectly for winter bouquets, keeping both shape and color.
Every cabin and dugout, ranch house and water tank, was gay
with cypress vines and nasturtiums, morning glories and moon flow-
ers; immense castor oil plants shaded the windows and great beds of
cannas and caladium and chrysanthemums surrounded the way sta-
tions. It was color, color everywhere under the brilliant sunshine and
cloudless skies of Oklahoma. Great fields of cotton with its bursting
bolls, feterita and milo maize with their peculiar heads of ripening
grain, Sudan grass and cane and Kaffir corn all added to the charm of
a novel and most interesting panorama. Shortly before Christmas we
began to see the mistletoe, which is very abundant around Lawton and
is shipped north in large quantities. Wagon loads are sold in the streets
and the large pearly berries are most beautiful and are borne in great
profusion. Its favorite host seems to be the oak, although it scarcely
disdains any tree on which it may obtain foothold; I saw trees on which
no natural foliage could be seen, so densely was it covered with the
Winters are short in Oklahoma and early in March the landscape
was suddenly transformed by the blossoming of thousands of peach
trees, plums, apricots, prunes and cherries, the apple coming a little
later. Along the roadsides and over the rocks were thickets of wild
Chickasaw plums not over three or four feet in height and a mass of
bloom, and the brooksides were suddenly blue with Viola conspersa,
growing in abundance rarely seen in the north, and anemones seemed
to be everywhere.
10 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
White erythronium, many of the flowers pale pink, carpeted the
richer uplands and along the water-courses the red-hud, one of our
most beautiful flowering trees, flaunted its crimson banners, a challenge
to the eye for a long distance; one creek in particular had its bank
for miles crowded with this exquisite tree literally loaded with flow-
ers, each tree a perfect bouquet.
A little later a drive out into the oil country found the country
bright blue with millions upon millions of the flowers of the blue-eyed
grass growing in unbelievable profusion. A few miles farther showed
milk vetch and Nothoscorclium, Gilia linearis, Verbena Canadensis, and,
in the moister places, butter-weed gave variety to the scene.
About the middle of April, Nature suddenly went mad and poured
out blossoms with such lavishness and in such a variety of colors one's
head reeled in trying to see all. Baptisia tinctoria, Astragalus and
other leguminosae, Amsonia, Zizia aurea, shone cream color or purple
or blue or gold; Oxalis violaceae spread an exquisite violet carpet in
the meadows, the deep blue spiderwort of our northern old-fashioned
gardens grew everywhere boldly by the roadsides, and zephyranthes
gaily nodded their dainty pink and white bells in the wind. Every day
brought flowers new and charming, but one of the most beautiful of
all was an evening primrose, 0. laciniata var. grandiflora, with low-
growing, widely-spreading plants often two and one-half to three feet
in diameter and absolutely covered with great, sweet-scented snowy
blossoms glowing in the dusk like fairy dancing grounds, and visited
by the fairies in the shape of large, velvety moths that came in
myriads to feast on honey-dew.
Scarcely less interesting is 0. pallida, a taller growing plant with
its white flowers turning to an exquisite pink. At this time we began
to note a verbena — V. Mpinnatifida, like our garden verbenas, only of
a bushy rather than a trailing habit, and bearing countless heads of
flowers in all shades of purple and mauve.
Toward the last of April two mallows became very conspicuous, the
Callirhoe, or poppy mallow of our gardens, growing in the clay along
the dusty roadsides and showing great bouquets of bright crimson
blooms each from two and one-half to four inches in diameter; and the
false mallow, M. coceineum, in much the same habitat and in even
greater abundance, with smaller flowers, bright orange rather than
"pink-red." It was strikingly in evidence, especially on the reserva-
tion, while the red-seed dandelion was common on the city's outskirts.
Another interesting plant found at this time was the Psoralea eseu-
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 11
lenta, the pomme de blanche or the pomme de prairie of the early voy-
agers, with its long edible root, and its sister plant, P. tenuiflora.
Early in May the wild hyacinth, Camassia esculenta, the quamash
of the Indians, was filling the air with its fragrance, growing freely
in certain localities, and giving the effect of a delicate lavender mist,
while its near relative, the wild garlic, although most beautiful to
look upon, was so offensive when gathered we were content to admire
it at a distance. The bulb of the quamash is greedily eaten by the
Indians and when roasted is agreeable to the civilized palate. The
compositae were now forging to the front and gaillardias, in nowise
different from those in our gardens, sprang up by the thousand over
the prairies and pentstemons in variety were thickly scattered through
the pastures and by the wayside. Calylophis serrulata, Gaura filipes,
Stenosiphon linifoliiis represented the Evening Primrose family; also
0. linifolia and 0. glauca were very conspicuous on the waste lands
around Lawton. Great patches of rather dirty white attracted at-
tention in the wilder parts of the reservation, and on examination
proved to be white sage; while Chamaesaraoha sordida, Solanum
elaeagni folium or white horse-nettle, the tomatillo — Physalis Ixocarpa.
with its curious fruit were reasonably abundant on waste ground.
By the middle of May, the Spanish bayonet was throwing up its
great spikes of cream-colored flowers, Oxytropis was royal purple, deep
violet and occasionally white, and the standing cypress was coming
into flower in but one locality, out at Medicine Park, Lawton's summer
resort; a large flowered pentstemon was becoming common in the pas-
tures, and blue toad-flax along sandy stretches; Vicia ludoviciana was
covering low wayside bushes with a wealth of purple bloom. Another
of our garden favorites was growing by the millions among the rocks
of the Wichita mountains — the golden coreopsis, with the deep red and
red-brown centres, and others solid yellow blossoms flaunting from
every crevice and waving defiantly in the wind; sensitive brier was
fairly common and the wild white larkspur thrust its tall torches
through the undergrowth. A rather odd flower was found at this time,
the Oxybaphus nyctagineus or vinegar saucer with its curious and con-
spicuous involucre. Phlox paniculata carpeted the ground in dense
patches literally covered with pink or white flowers.
Cacti were much in evidence the last of May, but only two species,
Mamillaria missouriensis var. caespitosa and the Prickly Pear, the
latter very common and a most uncomfortable neighbor in spite of the
beauty of the flowers of primrose and buff and golden yellow; notwith-
12 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
standing its loveliness it is unloved, although its fruit is edible and
is sometimes preserved by the housewife.
My last find was a tiny bit of rather soiled-looking cottcn flannel,
which Prof. M. L. Fernald of Harvard University kindly identified as
Erax multicaulia var. Drummondii; it is not described in Gray's Manual
and had never before been listed from Oklahoma. During my stay I
did not find any orchids nor did I see any ferns; the latter probably*-
because that section is quite dry and there is little standing or running
water as compared with Vermont.
That part of the state has not been opened for white settlement
many years and the flora for the most part remains as of old. But
conditions are rapidly changing and the wild flowers will disappear as
in older states.
At present it is a paradise for the botanist and it should be
thoroughly exploited before it is too late. My observations were most
superficial and by no means represent the reward of an active, prac-
tical botanist, yet more than once I came home with 20 or more new
finds, nearly all seen from a moving automobile.
NIGHT OBSERVATION OF BIRDS
Mrs. A. B. Morgan
"Where do birds spend the night?"' is a question I might never
have been able to answer even in a small degree had it not been
that for the past 10 years I have lived almost in the woods and have
occupied a sleeping porch from early spring to late fall. I have also
discovered that an automobile driven at night reveals the sleeping
quarters of many birds by startling them from their perch.
Several times while passing a rocky height that might well be in
the Alps themselves, thrushes have flashed across our path, and on the
same road we have surprised a screech owl in his hunting. A pair of
veeries have nested for several years just across the road, directly in
front of the house, and evidently the male has its particular tree down
the lane where it perches, since invariably when the car passes it at
night, out he flies. That other birds select and keep the same general
perch for the season I must infer from my observations, though to
what extent, it is unwise to speculate. A cuckoo has occupied an elm
tree near the house successively and often calls softly during the pass-
ing hours of the night. This characteristic of the bird is indicated by
the following item: "The city man had gone camping with his six-
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 13
year-old sen," says Harper's Magazine. "The two were in the depths of
a forest when the youngster startled the father by the following: 'Dad,
I can hear the cuckoo but I can't see any clock.' "
For nine years, recognized by its song, the same song sparrow came
back to its home in "The Highlands" garden and at night perched
high in the crab-apple tree that stands at the end of the piazza. Often
just at midnight he would send forth his clear, sweet notes that in the
stillness seemed emphasized and purified. This year he came no more —
a new songster, not half so sweet, was in the garden, and no notes of
his sounded from the crab-apple tree. Instead a white-throated sparrow,
that with its mate has nested for the first time near the house, revealed
frequently that he is one of the finest of night singers. I was interested
to read the following in a recent novel touching upon Idaho bird life:
"What is the bird that sings far into the night?"
"The bird that says 'Sweet, sweet, please listen to me, won't you?"
"Yes, or something equally as plaintive, at any rate."
"It's the white-crowned sparrow. You'll hear it through the dark-
est nights. Its song has all the somber quality of the dark hours. It's
our American nightingale."
This is not the generally accepted bird to bear that title as to
the veery has often been referred to as much, and on June evenings
frequently sings from twilight into the night. Sometimes in our near-
by sugar-bush the three species — wood, hermit and veery — are singing
in turn, and as the shadows deepen the voice of the hermit recedes
into the deep woods, then the "quit, quit" of the wood announces
its departure, leaving the veery still singing. On rare occasions it
slips into a low-branched cherry tree near my window where I can
hear its undertones, and see the pulsing of its throat. At such times
the depth and beauty of its notes could surely win it the title of the
The oven bird is one of the most striking of the night singers, and
only reveals its daytime self by the abrupt ending to its love song with
the conventional "teacher, teacher." For many weeks I hear it almost
nightly, the ascending and descending notes vibrant with ecstacy and
so sharp as to awaken one from sleep.
Near at hand in the syringa bush, chipping sparrows pass the
night, and this year after the little ones were raised the whole happy
family would chatter to each other as they stirred in their sleep. Chest-
nut-sided warblers that built in the lane perched in the grape vine,
as their twitterings announced, and a pair of robins perched as well as
nested in the big maple whose protecting branches reach to the piazza.
Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
During our first year ar. "The Highlands" a pair of screech owls came
often to this tree, and I learned that they have many additional
notes other than the familar "Who-o-o-o." They converse with each
other, often making a sobbing or whining sound, or a sweet whistle.
Our occupancy of the house has sent them back to the deep woods,
whence we hear, also, the hoot of the big horned owl.
One of the interesting things I have noted is the regularity with'
which birds go to their nightly rest. I have tried the experiment of
feeding my chickadees particularly appetizing morsels at close of day,
but invariably when the shadows deepen they are off as by magic, and
at this time of year, never later than 4.30. In the morning they always
appear from the same direction in the woods below, and I have little
doubt, occupy one of the many woodpeckers' holes with which the trees
For several years one of my greatest pleasures has been to watch
a flock of bluebirds, during late summer and early fall, winging their
way each night across our valley to a wooded hillside that long receives
the rays of the setting sun. As is well known, the call of the blue-
bird slightly more plaintive, perhaps, in fall than spring, is one of its
chief charms, and this flock calling softly in their evening flight, which
is timed almost to a minute, adds color and joy to the day.
All are familiar with the evening flight of the crows and know
that they have their established rookeries and that migrating birds
in spring occupy the same 'roosts" from year to year. For the past five
years I have observed one of these not far from here in a small maple
grove bordering a meadow. This year such numbers of robins and black-
birds assembled there that various reports came to me that there were
thousands of birds to be seen on the meadow in the early morning. At
night the medley of sounds that came from that quarter was truly
marvelous, and above it sounded the call notes of the sentinels that
were beating "tattoo." Foggy nights in the fall may so confuse migrat-
ing birds, that another opportunity may be afforded to pick out in the
confusion of sounds the call notes of thrushes, robins, vireos or spar-
rows, and to find these same birds feeding in shady lanes the next
It has been a satisfying discovery to me that the birds that l see
so familiarly by day about "The Highlands" are in the nearby trees
at night, and that their sleep seems not to be disturbed by anything
more serious than an exuberance of feeling that finds expression in
sleepy twitterings or thrilling song.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 15
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLERS SUMMERING IN
Duane E. Kent
For the past few years singing males of the golden-winged warb-
ler have been seen in Rutland county. On June 1, 1913, G. L. Kirk
of Rutland and myself heard singing in a thicket at Muddy Pond, near
the city of Rutland, a strange bird which we afterwards learned was a
golden-winged warbler. I did not hear the song again until May 30,
1915, when I was at the pond once more. A male was heard singing
and was seen. During the entire time that I was there, making a futile
search for the nest, 5 a. m. to 11 a. m., the bird was in song almost
continually, either in the alders or perched 40 to 50 feet from the
ground in an elm tree. On June G I made another visit to the place and
heard the bird singing, but was again unsuccessful in finding the nest.
On June 11, 1916, R. Clyde Spaulding of Rutland and the writer
were at the pond once more. This time we saw two male golden-
wings and heard them sing. One perched frequently in the favorite elm.
We made a careful search through the whole locality for the nest but
did not find it. We did, however, find an old nest which I could not
identify as belonging to any species with which I was familiar and I
decided it was the nest built by the golden-wing in 1915.
This year, 1918, I was at the pond on May 30 but found no golden-
wings but about a third of a mile distant I heard three of the birds
singing. They were in an alder thicket, bordering a pasture. A few
days later Mr. Kirk visited this ground and hear one bird sing. No
nest could be found.
On May 31, 1918, I collected a specimen of the golden-winged warb-
ler near Fair Haven for Mr. Kirk and I heard another singing at that
On May 29, 1918, G. H. Ross of Rutland saw one of these warb-
lers, a male, at Castleton.
So far no one in this locality has seen either a female or an imma-
ture golden-winged warbler.
SOME NEW STATIONS FOR RARE PLANTS IN
Inez Addie Howe
We are all familiar with the proverb that "all things come to him
who waits" but in the case of the botanist it should read "all things
Hi Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
come to him who searches,'" searches carefully with eyes that see in-
telligently the area explored. Each year of my work as botanist
at the Fairbanks museum has been rich in discoveries of plants new
to Vermont and new stations for many rare species previously re-
ported from other sections of the state.
Owing to a combination of circumstances very favorable for my
work, the season of 1917 was the most profitable yet. Because of the '
lateness of the spring the flowers did not blossom plentifully until my
lessons with the schools were finished. My collecting trips were
planned to cover definite areas, making a canvass of all the plants
found growing on each expedition with the view of compiling a flora
of St. Johnsbury and vicinity at some future day. W. E. Balch, who
commenced a series of photographs of the orchids of Vermont in 191G.
was employed at the museum during the past season, and, wishing to
revise and complete his series of photographs as far as possible, very
ably assisted the general botanical work of the museum while photo-
graphing the orchids in their habitats. To his efforts much credit is
due for the long list of new stations for Vermont plants that I have
to present this year.
Several species of plants sent me for identification proved to le
rare and unusual, one AlchemiUa pratensis, sent in by Miss Mary L.
Wheeler of Barton, being new to the state. Galium. Mollugo and Galium
verum were sent from Barnet, G. verum coming from the same station
from which it was recorded in 1916. Stachys palustris was sent from
West Danville and later found growing profusely in a pasture west of
My herbarium specimens of many of the rare species which I shall
mention are meagre in the extreme as I am fully convinced that unless
botanists use more discretion in collecting in the future than they have
in the past that all of the rarer species will soon come to exist in
herbaria only. Such seems to be the case with Orchis' rotundifoUa in
Vermont so far as I can ascertain, by my own efforts or by corre-
spondence with other botanists, and this is only one of many rare
forms on the verge of extinction if not already gone.
Instead of drying my rare plants, if I find them growing where
there is danger of their being uprooted or destroyed, I carry them
home and plant them in a locality as nearly as possible like the one
from which they came. In this way I have a fine collection started,
that "neither moth nor rust can corrupt'' and I trust that thieves may
not pass my trespass signs to steal them.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 17
Two very rare ferns Botrychium Lunaria and B. lanceolatum var.
angustisegmentum were found growing sparingly in St. Johnsbury, the
former in a dry, open pasture, the latter in high maple woods. I
found all of the species of botrychium that are listed in the Flora
growing within five miles of the museum, also several new stations for
In making a special study of the orchids of Caledonia county, we
found many new stations for all common species. The best find of the
season was a small colony of plants of Epipactis clecipiens, the first re-
ported for Vermont, so far as I know. A very large area of sturdy
plants of Epipactis pubescens was found in old growth hemlock woods,
the first station known in Caledonia county. E. tesselata and E.
repens var. ophioides were fairly common in dry fir and hemlock
woods in many sections of our town.
Habenaria Andreivsii, H. leucophaea and H. clavellata grow spar-
ingly in Danville in open moist meadow land and very large colonies
of H. lacera were found in similar localities in St. Johnsbury. H.
dilatata var. media was found sparingly in sphagnum bogs in Peacham
and St. Johnsbury.
Every species of Spiranthes listed in the Flora grows on my own
place as well as 12 other orchids, making a total of 17 species on 15
In my territory covered last season I was pleased to find many
rare species of plants spreading where I have carefully guarded them
for some years.
In addition to the orchids and ferns, I was much interested in the
study of pyrolas and located stations for all except Pyrola minor. The
other seven were all shown on our flower tables at once, all collected
within our local range. Monotropa Hypopitys was found in a fruiting
stage in September in St. Johnsbury.
The richest locality that I visited was a small muddy pond about
five miles from St. Johnsbury on the shores of which I found Glyceria
canadensis, Phalaris arundinacea, Garex lanuginosa, Lysimachia thyrsi-
flora, Myrica Gale, Pinus resinosa and, in the water, Rananculus aquata-
lis var. capillaceous, all new to our local flora. At Stiles' Pond Eleo-
charis acicularis and Polygonum arifolium were found growing pro-
fusely. Polygonum, lapathifolium was found as a weed in a cultivated
field and Salsola Kali var. tenuifolia grows abundantly by the highway
just out of St. Johnsbury, toward Danville. A single plant of Panax
quinqnefolium was found growing in a high cool maple wood in Sept.
18 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
Evidently the last of a sturdy race that once inhabited that hill and
had escaped the commercial ginseng hunter's greed.
Voccinivm macrocarpon is now known to grow in a bog almost
within the village limits and Artemisia Absinthium in a dry hill pas-
ture in one of our rural school communities. Scirpus lineatus grows
sparingly in damp soil near the St. Johnsbury golf links and Carex
Tuckermani was found by Miss Shields in open woods near the village.
In late October Ilex vertidllata in fruit was found by school children.
On two trips to the Nine Island region at East Barnet, one on July
7 and another August 16, many interesting finds were made supplement-
ing those recorded by the club in 1915. Among the new species listed
from these expeditions were Orobanache uniflora, Calamagrostis
neglect a, Aster rimineus var. saxatilis. Ranunculus flamula var. reptans.
Epipactis tesselata and Epipactis repens var. ophioides, Habenaria brac-
teata and H. Hoolceri also Corallorrhiza maculata, Halenia deflexa.
'Woodsia obtusa and Asplenium platyneuron.
This is a wonderfully profitable region, but even more so is the
Harvey's Pond region at West Barnet. From two brief trips there, I
am convinced that the pond, the shores, the surrounding woods and
nearby mountains hold untold treasures for the botanist as well as for
the ornithologist. Some of the rare treasures from this region in early
July are Microstylis monophyllos. Habenaria macrophylla. Monotropa
Hypopitys. PyrOla chlorantha. Rhododendron maximum, beside no end
of water plants which grow in the entrance to the pond.
Another wonderful spot in northern Caledonia county is located
on the road to West Burke and there all conditions combine, the high
cool woods, the sphagnum swamp so shaky one does not dare to re-
main long in one place, the almost bottomless pond and here in turn
grow Epigaea repens. Andromeda glaucophylla, Chamaedaphne calycu-
lata, Ledum groenlandicum. Kalmia angustifolia, Pyrola asarijolia var.
incarnata. Sarracenia purpurea, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Calopogon
pulchellus. Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum callitrix, and no end
of others both precious and rare.
These are a few of the results of last season's work by the bontan-
ical department of the Fairbanks museum. From the various expe-
ditions 46 new species were added to our local flora which covers a
radius of five miles from the museum. Thirteen Vermont plants were
added to our general herbarium. There were 786 species, including 22
mosses and lichens, shown during the season on our flower tables.
Many more might have been displayed except for the fact that when
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 19
a species is rare or unusual I do not collect specimens until it becomes
thoroughly established if possible to protect it.
Two species have been added to the flora of Vermont. Mr. Balch
has photographed 47 of the 51 species of orchids listed for Vermont
beside many other rare plants, thus perpetuating their usefulness as
well as herbarium specimens could, and leaving the plants to grow
again and again in their native habitats.
FOUR SUMMER MEETINGS OF THE HARTLAND
Mrs. A. B. Morgan
The first of these meetings was held in June at "The Highlands"
when the Woodstock Bird Club was a guest of the Nature Club. Karl
A. Pember, a member of the former club, showed a very complete
collection of birds' eggs that was started 25 years ago, and his talk,
partly reminiscent, was highly entertaining as well as instructive.
Harold G. Rugg gave an illustrated talk on "The Hardy Fern Border,"
the specimens of English varieties of the lady fern being especially
interesting. An expert from Washington explained the pine tree blight,
advising that all currant and gooseberry bushes be eliminated in the
vicinity of pine plantations.
In July many nature lovers gathered in the garden of Miss Dar-
ling's home where she gave a delightful talk on a collection of Alpine
plants that Rev. S. G. Spear gathered in Switzerland as he and a
friend tramped through the mountains. By means of an illustrated
work on Alpine plants presented to the club by Mrs. Symonds of
Huntington, L. I., she was able to classify all the species, numbering
about 80 into 33 families. Several guests who had traveled in England
and Switzerland gave personal observations that added greatly to the
The annual meeting, which now takes the form of a picnic and
roll-call, was held in Hartland village on the lawn of the Steele estate.
Miss Sturtevant read an interesting and comprehensive report of the
year's work, and letters from absent members were enjoyed. Miss
Kittredge, collecting for Miss Billings, showed several specimens new
or rare in Vermont. At roll-call each member responded with some
observation of interest. Jay G. Underwood, fresh from a trip with Mr.
Winslow and Mr. Rugg for additional stations for Aspidium Filix-mas
*J0 Joint BULLETINS 4 and 5
reported that this fern grows always in the vicinity of butternut trees
and at a high elevation. The picnic table, decorated in patriotic colors
and filled with tempting and experimental delicacies, was not the least
of the attractions of this meeting.
The September and October meetings were combined, and by in-
vitation met with Mrs. W. H. Moore of Woodstock. Mrs. A. B. Morgan
read a paper on "Definite Ecological Studies," which gave a careful '
exposition of the plants, animals and insects with their inter-relations
as observed at "The Highlands" for the past nine years. Fully illus-
trated by fresh and mounted specimens, it conveyed a clear idea of
Mrs. W. E. Mack, who has a large herb garden, made her paper on
"Garden Herbs: Their Culture and Use'' highly instructive by an ac-
count of actual experiences, and a basket heaped high with bunches
of fragment herbs caused exclamations of wonder and pleasure. Con-
tributions by members included Mithridates paste, a compound of rue,
juniper berries, figs and walnuts, rose conserve, rose drops and mint
recipes. These gave spice to the occasion, which was one of the most
delightful ever held by the club.
A WORD CONCERNING XANTHIUMS
Nellie F. Flynn
The Xanthiums, or clotburrs are the subject of a monograph by
Dr. Millspaugh and Mr. Sheriff of Chicago, which is now in the hands
of the printer.
I collected a bundle of the plants early in September, 1918, in re-
sponse to an inquiry of Dr. Brainerd for information regarding a cer-
tain species which had been collected by him and Prof. L. R. Jones
on the shore of Lake Champlain in Burlington. My specimens, except
a few collected in another locality, were all growing in a space of less
than a mile and the monographers reported that I had five good
species, a surprisingly large number for one locality.
They mentioned X. leptoearpum* X. cnrvescens and X. chinense.
It will be interesting for the members of the club to oe on the lookout
for different forms of this genus in order that it may be given critical
study in Vermont. The plants may be found on the shores of lakes,
ponds and rivers and in waste places.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 21
THE WOODSTOCK BIRD CLUB
The Woodstock Bird Club, which is a branch of the Lucy Mackenzie
Humane Society of Woodstock, has had only a year's experience but
it is already recognized as doing something worth while. Winter feed-
ing stations have been placed in the parks by the club and individuals
throughout the town have fed the birds from shelves and trees. Es-
pecially has the interest extended to the school children in the village
and in the rural districts to feed and protect birds.
Nesting boxes were placed in gardens and near houses and many
of them were occupied by nuthatches, chickadees and several pairs
of house wrens. This emphasized the fact that the birds will nest near
our homes if they are provided with desirable nesting boxes, placed
early enough in the spring for them to arrange for their housekeeping,
and if the everlasting English sparrow will let them alone. We have
never had wrens until this last season.
RECORDS FOR ST. JOHNSBURY, 1917
Inez Addie Hoive
First Date Last Date
Snow Bunting Jan. 2 Mar. 24
Evening Grosbeak Jan. 6 May 18
Tree Sparrow Jan. 7 « Apr. 5
Redpoll Jan. 9 May 18
22 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
Canada Jay Jan.
White-winged Crossbill Jan.
Pine Grosbeak Jan.
Pine Siskin Feb.
Hudsonian Chickadee Feb.
Horned Lark Feb.
American Goshawk Feb.
American Crow Mar.
Cedar Waxwing Mar.
Saw-whet Owl Mar.
Song Sparrow Mar.
Bronzed Grackle Mar.
Broad-winged Hawk Apr.
Canada Goose Apr.
American Crossbill Apr.
Marsh Hawk Apr.
Red-winged Blackbird Apr.
Prairie Horned Lark Apr.
Red-tailed Hawk Apr.
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Apr.
Fox Sparrow Apr.
Vesper Sparrow Apr.
Field Sparrow Apr.
Savannah Sparrow Apr.
Sharp-shinned Hawk Apr.
Hermit Thrush Apr.
Winter Wren Apr.
White-throated Sparrow Apr.
Belted Kingfisher Apr.
Fnglish Starling Apr.
Myrtle Warbler Apr.
Chipping Sparrow Apr.
Least Flycatcher Apr.
• • • • •
. . .
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs
Purple Finch Apr.
Pine Warbler Apr.
Yellow Warbler May
Tree Swallow May
Barn Swallow May
Bank Swallow May
White-crowned Sparrow May
Black and White Warbler May
American Osprey May
Blue-headed Vireo May
Great Blue Heron May
Yellow Palm Warbler May
Herring Gull May
Cooper's Hawk May
Spotted Sandpiper , May
Chimney Swift May
Wilson's Thrush May
Olive-backed Thrush May
Baltimore Oriole May
Warbling Vireo May
Ruby-throated Hummingbird May
American Redstart May
House Wren May
Cape May Warbler May
Magnolia Warbler May
Black-throated Blue Warbler May
Black-throated Green Warbler .... May
Blackburnian Warbler May
Chestnut-sided Warbler May
Maryland Yellowthroat May
Bay-breasted Warbler May
Black-poll Warbler May
Yellow-throated Vireo May
White-eyed Vireo May
Parula Warbler May
Cerulean Warbler May
Rose-breasted Grosbeak May
24 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
Great Crested Flycatcher May 20 Aug. 16
Grasshopper Sparrow May 20
Solitary Sandpiper May 21
Rusty Blackbird May 22 Nov. 16
Golden-crowned Kinglet May 22 Nov. 2
Faves Swallow May 24 Aug. 31
Sparrow Hawk May 24 Aug. 31
Nashville Warbler May 24
Canadian Warbler May 24 Aug. 31
Scarlet Tanager May 25
Duck Hawk May 27
Black Duck May 27
Greater Yellow Legs May 27
Tennessee Warbler May 28
Whip-poor-will May 30
Black-billed'Cuckoo May 31
Nighthawk May 31 Sept. 13
Wood Pewee .• Tune 1 Sept. 3
Indigo Bunting Tune 1 Aug. 12
Swamp Sparrow June 1
Connecticut Warbler Tune 1 Aug. 10
Olive-sided Flycatcher June 2
Brown Thrasher Tune 2
Red-eyed Vireo June 2 Sept. 7
Red-shouldered Hawk June 4
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher June 4
Mourning Warbler June 6
Trail's Flycatcher June 6
Towhee Tune 8
Water Thrush June 8
Wilson's Warbler June 15
Rough-legged Hawk June 17
Upland Plover Tune 17
Worm-eating Warbler Tune 24
Purple Martin Tuly 10
Least Sandpiper Aug. 16
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Sept. 9
American Bittern Sept. 18
Wood Thrush Oct. 12
American Merganser Nov. 23
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 25
The above record is the second for the occurrence of the ceru-
lean warbler at St. Johnsbury. The worm-eating warbler is an equally
unusual record for Vermont. There is a specimen of this bird in the
Fairbanks museum collection which was taken at St. Johnsbury. The
olive-backed thrush is rare at St. Johnsbury. The record for the duck
hawk is the first for St. Johnsbury as is that of the greater yellow
XOTES FOR 1918
Few winter birds were observed during the extremely cold
weather of the winter of 1917-1918. A flock of greater redpolls were
seen about St. Johnsbury from March 3 to 12, inclusive. These were
the only unusual winter visitors that I recorded. White-winged cross-
bills were seen in small flocks April 2 to 6.
On June 8 I saw a pair of rough-winged swallows In a mixed flock
of barn and eave swallows. I saw them again on the 9th and a third
time on the 21st of June. The last time they were alone.
Three black-crowned night hercns were seen and heard on the
shore of a small pond near the village on the evening of August 26th.
On August 28 the unusual number of five yellow-billed cuckoos were
seen feeding together on tent caterpillars on a wayside tree.
One Hudsonian chickadee was observed in a deep, dark cedar swamp
on October 24. During the present month, January, 1919, one has
appeared four times at my feeding table with other chickadees.
The first St. Johnsbury record for a snowy owl was made on De-
cember 4, when I observed one in a swampy woods near one of our
remote rural schools.
Pine and evening grosbeaks appeared early in November, 1918,
and are still very numerous January 27, 1919.
BIRD MIGRATION AT STAMFORD
Mary A. Sanford
January, 1917: Bluejays, chicadees, tree sparrows.
February: Pine grosbeaks, nuthatches, horned larks, snow bunt-
March: 9, crows; 20, starlings; 21, bluebirds, downy woodpeckers;
24, robins; 25, rusty blackbirds, phoebes, meadowlarks; 26, juncos; 29.
song sparrows; 31, bronze grackles.
•JO Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
April: 11, brown creepers; 19, yellow redpoll warblers; 22, nickers.
May: 3, barn swallows, chipping sparrows, white-throated spar-
rows; 7, myrtle warbler; 9, purple finches; 15, tree swallows, field
sparrows, bobolinks; 17, bank swallows; 18, chimney swifts, least fly-
catchers; 19, catbirds, white-crowned sparrows; 20, redstarts, chestnut-
sided warblers, blackburnian warblers, magnolia warblers, black and
white warblers, pine warblers, black-throated blue warblers, blacks
throated green warblers, ovenbirds, rose-breasted grosbeaks, brown
thrashers, kingbirds; 23, Baltimore orioles, goldfinches, quail, vesper
sparrows; 26, Wilson's thrushes, Maryland yellow-throats, spotted sand-
pipers, eave swallows, red-winged blackbirds; 30, bay-breasted warblers,
scarlet tanagers; 31, indigo buntings, blackpoll warblers.
Pine grosbeaks were observed April 21, 1916, a very late date.
THE RUTLAND LIST
The Rutland migration list was kept as usual by D. E. Kent, G. H.
Ross and G. L. Kirk. It showed 153 species for 1917 and 122 for 1918.
Records of especial interest are mentioned elsewhere in this Bulletin.
UTILIZATION OF OUR NATIVE FRUITS
Mrs. A. B. Morgan
The piquant flavor of all compounds made from native fruits
comes quite as much from the delight of gathering them as from serv-
ing the final product, and when their sparkling color or rich spiciness
adds to a winter's meal, June fields or autumn's glory seem to have
been caught and held for the occasion.
It has been my privilege to experiment successfully with the useful
side of our native fruits, and it occurs to me that others might like a
brief guide in following a similar course.
I begin the last week in June in my campaign and gather shad
berries, taking them before they are fully ripe, both for their better
cooking qualities and to get ahead of the birds. From them I prefer
to make shad berry pie which is made like that of blueberry with a
cup of sugar, a tablespoonful of flour and a generous pinch of salt.
Cooked slowly and well in a crisp crust, the result is truly delicious.
Perchance when you are out in search of these berries, you will find
little beds of pasture strawberries glowing with fruit, and can gather
enough for the first shortcake. It is hardly necessary to tell anyone
how to use wild strawberries, but last year when we had literally
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 27
bushels of them at "The Highlands," I bottled juice to combine later
with currant and apple juice in the proportion of 3 parts strawberry to
one of currant and two parts strawberry to one of apple.
As is well known, in all jelly making the active principle called
pectin must be present and may be supplied by using apple juice made
from the pulp, skin and cores, or by using the white portion of orange
peel that has been allowed to stand and then boiled in water. If at any
time I have fruit juice that I wish to combine later with apple, I bot-
tle it and then make the jelly fresh when I want it, the flavor and
quality being then prime. This year I kept both apple and cherry juice
till Christmas when I made it up to be served with several different
Christmas dinners, the color being a sparkling, holly-berry red. In the
same way I have used the juice of the pin cherry, and that from choke
cherry when combined with an equal quantity of apple juice and
flavored with favorite spices, makes a delicious venison jelly. Thorn
apples, especially the fruit of macrosperma, the variety that grows so
abundantly here, combined with tart apple juice makes a product of
fine substance, and only surpassed in coloring by that made from
the high bush cranberry. The fruit of this latter must be gathered
before it is dead ripe and may be used alone or in combination. The
flavor is marked, some say hitter, but has long been regarded of
medicinal value, as well as has the elderberry which makes a wine-
colored, sweet jelly, or, if preferred, a spiced wine that mellows with
age and is good for invalids.
The general rule for making wine from blackberries, grapes or elder-
berries is this:
Cover fruit with cold water and let stand 24 hours. Crush and
strain, adding 3 pounds of sugar to 1 gallon of juice. Put it into wide-
mouthed jars and skim frequently for several weeks, next put into
cask till March and then strain and bottle.
I have blackberry wine that has been kept for many years and
possesses a rich flavor as well as a tonic quality. Blackberry-apple jelly
is mild and pleasant and especially good to serve with sponge cake,
while raspberry-currant jelly made in the proportion of 2 to 1 reaches,
in my judgment, the highest state of jelly perfection.
Plain raspberry juice sweetened to make a rich syrup may be bot-
tled and used as a refreshing drink with the addition of spring water.
If preferred, shrub or raspberry vinegar made by the addition of equal
quantities of vinegar, berries and sugar may be used instead. Barberries
cooked with sweet apples make a rich orange-red jelly which does not
require so much sugar as most other fruit juices. Frost grapes make
28 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
a racy flavored juice and I prefer to sweeten it "the pint to the pound"
to add to its richness and keeping qualities. Apple-grape jelly, 3 to 1,
is of much better substance than when the grape is used alone. Care
should be taken in not cooking the grapes beyond the point where the
juice flows freely. Catchup made of 2 quarts of mashed grapes, enough
vinegar to cover, heated and strained, then cooked with 1 cup of sugar,
a teaspoonful each of cinnamon and cloves, and a dash of red pepper,
makes a savory dressing.
In my childhood one of the yearly events was to go to a swamp
each August to gather the smooth gooseberry that grew in such quan-
tities that big pailfuls were carried home, where my mother made
rich preserves of them to be served later when we came home hungry
from school. To the memory of that flavor and those bright days of
family berrying parties may perhaps be ascribed my present delight
in these little excursions with our native fruits.
Some Extralimital Records
Examination of a series of bulletins on bird migration, issued by
the United States Bureau of Biological Survey, shews a number of extra-
limital records for the occurrence of birds in this state which have
not been published in Vermont literature. They are as follows: Wood
ibis, YVilliston, 1897, G. H. Perkins; snowy egret, St. Albans, October,
1890, C. D. Howe; sandhill crane, Lunenburg, Perkins and Howe; long-
tailed jaeger, West Castleton, September 7, 1877, Howe.
Winter Record for Mourning Dove
According to Dr. Lucretius H. Ross of Bennington, a mourning dove
was observed at Shaftsbury January 8, 1919. Robins, meadowlarks and
sparrow hawks wintered at Bennington during the season of 1918-19.
Success in Taming Chickadees
Miss Jessie Gilman of Pomfret succeeded in taming chickadees
until they would alight on her head and hands to get food.
White Form of Lady's Slippeb
Sylvia H. Bliss of East Calais reports the finding of a group of
pure white Cypripedium hirsutum. She writes: "There are two small
clumps of this white lady's slipper" in a swamp in the northeastern
part of Calais. They grow in company with a large number of the
Vermont Botanical and Bird Cli j:s L )( J
showy lady's slipper, and I have found them at least three different
seasons, one with an interval of a year or two between them when I
did not visit the spot. They are vigorous and very beautiful.
Addition to Vermont Hepatic List
Miss Annie Lorenz of Hartford, Conn., writes of the finding of
the hepatic, Marsupella Sullivantii (De Not) Evans at Mount Mansfield
in July, 1917. This is new to Vermont.
New Station for Panicum Tsugetorum
Panicum tsugetorum Nash has been found growing in Tinmouth
by Dana S. Carpenter of Middletown Springs. The plant was determined
by Prof. A. S. Hitchcock. The site was a gravelly-clay roadside.
Bohemian Waxwings at Hartland
On October 30, 1917, a flock of Bohemian waxwings numbering 100
or more, visited "Sky Farm," Hartland, Vt., Miss Nancy Darling's home,
for mountain ash berries, and the next day, when they returned, Mrs.
A. B. Morgan was present to observe their feeding. They kept them-
selves in three squads — one in the ash tree eating berries and two on
maple trees in the grove keeping watch.
While feeding they were constantly shifting their positions, and
some of the birds frequently lifted their wings in such a manner
as to show white along the back edges of each wing. While settling
down upon the ash trees, the birds made an odd squeaking sound of
satisfaction and all the time while feeding they uttered little notes
that implied contentment. Some years previously a flock of half a
dozen or so visited the farm.
An Interesting Orchid
A rarely beautiful flowering of the large coral root orchis Coral-
lorrhiza maculata was observed by Miss Darling and a visiting botanist
while searching in Finley Glen, Hartland, on July 30, 1917, for Haoen-
aria macrophylla. The plants occurred both singly and in groups, but
all in full bloom, and some of the spikes, a foot or more high, were so
crowded as to convey a sense of opulence. The butterfly form of the flow-
ers suggested insects and rendered the plants almost uncanny, though
very beautiful in their rose and madder-purple coloring. At the heart
of each blossom was a spot of yellow dotted with magenta — the little
column, which gave life and lustre to the whole.
At first these leafless orchids were scarcely noticeable in the un*
derbrush among the brown leaves of a former season, but, one by one,
.')(» Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
they appeared, after careful search, rising before the vision almost
magically, sometimes alone, sometimes in clusters, and exhaling a
subtle fragrance as of violets. It seems nothing short of a miracle
that such beauty and delicacy can be developed from the defunct roots
and leaves of other plants, with only here and there a ray of light.
Another Nelson's Sparrow Record
Nelson's sparrow, of which a note has been previously published
in the bulletin, has appeared at Rutland in three consecutive seasons.
The dates are: October 8, 1916; October 2, 1917; October 10, 1918.
Barrow's Goldeneye in Vermont
A number of specimens of Barrow's goldeneye, the western form
of the whistler duck, were collected on Lake Champlain during the
fall of 1917. Birds in the hands of hunters were seen by D. E. Kent
and G. L. Kirk.
Big Flight of Shorebirds
There was a heavy flight of shorebirds at East Pittsford pond on
September 15, 1917. Among the species taken which are unusual in
Vermont except on Lake Champlain were a black-bellied plover, semi-
palmated plover, pectoral sandpiper, least sandpiper and semi-palmated
sandpiper. (F. L. Osgood.)
Cormorants in This State
A double-crested cormorant was shot at Lake Bomoseen on October
14, 1917. On the same day two were observed at Bridport on Lake
Champlain. There are very few records for this bird in the state.
A Laggard Teal
A blue-winged teal was shot at Lake Bomoseen November 6, 1917.
This duck is seldom seen in Vermont after September.
Late Dates for Migrants
Because of the continued mild weather migratory birds remained
unusually late in northern New England during 1918. Some interest-
ing records from Rutland when the last of the given species were
seen are as follows: Whippoorwill and brown thrasher, September 23;
October 3, black-throated blue, bay-breasted and black and white
warbler; October 20, catbird; November 2, ruby-crowned kinglet; No-
vember 21, rusty blackbird.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 31
California Plants Defy Jack Frost
Mrs. Mary A. Loveland of Norwich writes: "A package of wild
flower seeds sent me from California gave much pleasure as the plants
grew well and blossomed. To my surprise they withstood frost better
than some of our cultivated annuals. A bouquet was picked in Novem-
ber. Among those identified were the California poppy, phacelia, lupine
New Selaginella Station
Harold G. Rugg of Hanover, N. H., collected Selaginella apus at
Reading in August, 1918. This is the third Vermont station.
Mr. Rugg also reports a new station for Aspidium filix-mas concern-
ing which he writes: "It may be well to record my station for the
male fern in Rochester. The plants were growing at an elevation of
2,400 feet and very near some plants of Aspidium spinulosum. They
were beside an old road which leads from the Rochester-Randolph gap
to the ruined summit house on top of Mount Cushman.
New Station for Eqtjisetum Pratense
Clarence H. Knowlton of Hingham, Mass., while touring Vermont
last summer (1918) called on J. G. Underwood at Hartland. Together
they visited that famous botanical ground, Hart Island, and in the
alluvial, sandy land on the bluff at the upper end of the island, under
shrubs and vines, they collected an equisetum which Mr. Knowlton
stated he believed was E. pratense. This identification has been con-
firmed by Prof. M. L. Fernald.
Nesting of Brown Creeper
D. E. Kent of Rutland writes as follows in regard to the nesting
of the brown creeper: "Nesting brown creepers are considered rare
in and near Rutland county. Some half dozen years ago I found a nest
at Pine's pond near Lake Bomoseen, where flooding had killed good
sized trees. This was the only locality in which I had ever seen the
bird in the nesting period until the spring of 1917 when I found them
to be common about Chittenden dam in Chittenden. On June 1, 1918,
Owen Durfee of Fall River, Mass., G. L. Kirk of Rutland and the writer
were at the reservoir formed by the dam and we found that there were
probably 10 to 12 pairs of creepers nesting in a flooded forest. Inunda-
tion had caused the death of many large trees and in those which
were in just the right stage of decay the bark hung loosely, forming
ideal conditions for the peculiar homes of these birds. We found one
nest containing six partly incubated eggs."
Joint Bulletins 4 and 5
MRS. NELLIE HART WOODWORTH
Harold Goddard Rugg
Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, a member of the Vermont Bird Club r
for many years, died March 12, 1918 at Sarasota, Fla. Mrs. Woodworth
was born in East Berkshire, Vt., August 17, 1847. She spent a large
part of her life in East Berkshire and in St. Albans. She remained
in Florida during the winter for the last few years but always returned
to Vermont for the summer. The last meeting of the club which she at-
tended was the one at Franklin.
Mrs. Woodworth contributed many articles on birds to various
magazines and to the Boston Transcript. She also wrote bird poems
which were published. She was an intimate friend of John Burroughs
and at her death he said: "I can indeed pay a heartfelt tribute to my
friend for many years, Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, whose recent death
comes to me with a distinct feeling of loss. I know her to have been
a woman of fine mind and a warm womanly heart. She had a rare
gift for making friends and keeping them. She was a sincere lover
of nature and knew the birds as well as her dearest friends."
George L. Kirk
Elroy Kent of East Wallingford, who was affiliated with the Ver-
mont Botanical Club since the first years of its existence, died suddenly
at his home January 29, 1918. During more than 30 years of his busy
life as a farmer, Mr. Kent devoted such spare time as he had at his de-
mand to the pursuit of his hobby, botany. His home being unusually well
situated for studying a well-varied flora, he thoroughly explored the ter-
ritory for miles around and he accumulated an herbarium which is
complete from a local standpoint. This collection, which is of especial
interest in that it represents the floras of Spectacle Pond and other
cold ponds and bogs, is still at Mr. Kent's late home.
While the higher forms of plants were the subjects of Mr. Kent's
chief study, he also took a great interest in lichens and fungi.
Mr. Kent is survived by two sons, Duane E. Kent of Rutland and
Wyatt A. Kent of Contact, Nev., and a daughter, Mrs. R. H. Mahaffy
of Wallingford. The sons are students of bird life.
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